Permanent Migration and Some Structural Correlates: A Comparative Analysis of Recent International Migration

Alvarez, Gabriel C.

     Our study is primarily preoccupied in investigating the relationship between some structural factors and recent international migratory movements. Our analysis consists of two parts. It is designed to focus on two distinct areas of concern which, on the whole, are complementary. The first part [analyzes] the relationship between selected structural correlates and some categories of permanent migration while the second part [deals] with a more detailed evaluation of migration patterns of a selected number of countries by using the same categories of permanent migration. It is hoped that with this two-part research design one will be able to extract more valuable insights on recent international migration.
     The six countries considered are: France, United Kingdom, Spain, Argentina, India and the Philippines. The categories for permanent migration used are total permanent migration, professional permanent migration and permanent migration of scientists and engineers. Among the subcategories considered are: (1) entry and admission status; (2) status adjustment; and (3) citizenship by naturalization. Our main concern is to observe and distinguish patterns and variations of permanent migration within each categorical level of socioeconomic development.
     The argument proposed by our study is that . . . certain structural correlates are relevant in explaining the migration of highly-qualified persons, and recent international migratory movements, in general. From these correlates nine structural factors (or components) were determined. The education factors are: (1) the human resource component -- a factor reflecting the extent of higher educational attainment of the population; (2) the scientific and technical manpower component -- a factor reflecting the availability of scientists and technicians (or personnel directly involved in research and development); (3) the higher education orientation component -- a factor reflecting the academic orientation of higher education. . . . The manpower utilization factors are: (1) the industrial manpower component -- a factor reflecting the extent of work-force participation in industry and non-agricultural activities; (2) the professional manpower component -- a factor reflecting the extent of the work force classified under the professional category; and (3) the compositional participation component -- a factor reflecting the extent of professional workers' participation in the work force. The socioeconomic development factors are: (1) the organizational component -- a factor referring to the level of organizational development and complexity . . . (2) the consumption component -- a factor referring to the level of technological development . . . and (3) the developmental component -- a factor referring to health and educational (literacy and formal schooling) development, and the productive capacity of the manufacturing sector of the economy as a measure of capital formation and industrial expansion.